MM(7) Standards, Environments, and Macros MM(7)

mm - text formatting (memorandum) macros

nroff  -mm [options] filename...

troff  -mm [options] filename...

This package of nroff(1) and troff(1) macro definitions provides a formatting facility for various styles of articles, theses, and books. When producing 2-column output on a terminal or lineprinter, or when reverse line motions are needed, filter the output through col(1). All external -mm macros are defined below.

Note: this -mm macro package is an extended version written at Berkeley and is a superset of the standard -mm macro packages as supplied by Bell Labs. Some of the Bell Labs macros have been removed; for instance, it is assumed that the user has little interest in producing headers stating that the memo was generated at Whippany Labs.

Many nroff and troff requests are unsafe in conjunction with this package. However, the first four requests below may be used with impunity after initialization, and the last two may be used even before initialization:


begin new page


break output line


insert n spacing lines


center next n lines


line spacing: n=1 single, n=2 double space


no alignment of right margin

Font and point size changes with \f and \s are also allowed; for example, \fIword\fR will italicize word. Output of the tbl(1), eqn(1) and refer(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, and references is acceptable as input.

Here is a table of macros.

Macro Name Initial Value Break? Reset? Explanation
.1C on y,y one column format on a new page
.2C [ l ] - y,y two column format l=line length
.AE - y end abstract
.AL [ t ] [ i ] [ s ] t=1;i=.Li;s=0 y Start automatic list type t=[1,A,a,I,i] 1=arabic numbers; A=uppercase letters a=lowercase letters; I=uppercase Roman numerals; i=lowercase Roman numerals indentation i; separation s
.AS m [ n ] n=0 y begin abstract
.AU - y author's name
.AV x - y signature and date line of verifier x
.B x - n embolden x; if no x, switch to boldface
.BE - y end block text
.BI x y - n embolden x and underline y
.BL - y bullet list
.BR x y - n embolden x and use Roman font for y
.BS - n start block text
.CN - y same as .DE (nroff)
.CS - y cover sheet
.CW - n same as .DS I (nroff)
.DE - y end display
.DF [ p ] [ f ] [ rp ] p=L;f=N y start floating display; position p=[L,C,CB] L=left; I=indent; C=center; CB=center block fill f=[N,Y]; right position rp (fill only)
.DL [ i ] [ s ] - y start dash list
.DS [ p ] [ f ] [ rp ] p=L;f=N y begin static display (see .DF for argument descriptions)
.EC x [ n ] n=1 y equation title; equation x; number n
.EF x - n even footer appears at the bottom of even-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.EH x - n even header appears at the top of even-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.EN - y end displayed equation produced by eqn
.EQ - y break out equation produced by eqn
.EX x [ n ] n=1 y exhibit title; exhibit x
number n
.FD [ f ] [ r ] f=10;r=1 n set footnote style format f=[0-11]; renumber r=[0,1]
.FE - y end footnote
.FG x [ n ] n=1 y figure title; figure x; number n
.FS - n start footnote
.H l [ t ] - y produce numbered heading level l=[1-7]; title t
.HU t - y produce unnumbered heading; title t
.I x - n underline x
.IB x y - n underline x and embolden y
.IR x y - n underline x and use Roman font on y
.LE [ s ] s=0 y end list; separation s
.LI [ m ] [ p ] - y start new list item; mark m
prefix p (mark only)
.ML m [ i ] [ s ] s=0 y start marked list; mark m indentation i; separation s=[0,1]
.MT x y memo title; title x
.ND x n no date in page footer; x is date on cover
.NE - y end block text
.NS - y start block text
.OF x - n odd footer appears at the bottom of odd-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.OF x - n odd header appears at the top of odd-numbered pages; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.OP - y skip to the top of an odd-number page
.P [ t ] t=0 y,y begin paragraph; t=[0,1] 0=justified; 1=indented
.PF x - n page footer appears at the bottom of every page; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.PH x - n page header appears at the top of every page; x="l'c'r" l=left; c=center; r=right
.R on n return to Roman font
.RB x y - n use Roman on x and embolden y
.RI x y - n use Roman on x and underline y
.RP x - y,y released paper format ? x=no stops title on first
.RS 5n y,y right shift: start level of relative indentation
.S m n - n set character point size & vertical space character point size m; vertical space n
.SA x x=1 n justification; x=[0,1]
.SK x - y skip x pages
.SM - n smaller; decrease point size by 2
.SP [ x ] - y leave x blank lines
.TB x [ n ] n=1 y table title; table x; number n
.TC - y print table of contents (put at end of input file)
.TH - Y "multi-page end, header"
.TL - n title in boldface and two points larger
.TM - n UC Berkeley thesis mode
.TP i y y i=p.i. Begin indented paragraph, with the tag given on the next text line. Set prevailing indent to i.
.TE - y end of table processed by tbl
.TS x - y,y begin table; if x=H table has multi-page header
.TY - y display centered title CONTENTS
.VL i [ m ] [ s ] m=0;s=0 y start variable-item list; indentation i mark-indentation m; separation s

Formatting distances can be controlled in -mm by means of built-in number registers. For example, this sets the line length to 6.5 inches:

.nr  LL  6.5i

Here is a table of number registers and their default values:

Name Register Controls Takes Effect Default
Cl contents level table of contents 2
De display eject display 0
Df display floating display 5
Ds display spacing display 1v
Hb heading break heading 2
Hc heading centering heading 0
Hi heading indent heading 1
Hi heading spacing heading 1
Hu heading unnumbered heading 2
Li list indentation list 6 (nroff) 5 (troff)
Ls list spacing list 6
Pi paragraph indent paragraph 5
Pt paragraph type paragraph 1
Si static indent display 5 (nroff) 3 (troff)

When resetting these values, make sure to specify the appropriate units. Setting the line length to 7, for example, will result in output with one character per line. Setting Pi to 0 suppresses paragraph indentation

Here is a list of string registers available in -mm; they may be used anywhere in the text:

Name String's Function
\*Q quote (" in nroff, `` in troff )
\*U unquote (" in nroff, '' in troff )
\*- dash (-- in nroff, — in troff )
\*(MO month (month of the year)
\*(DY day (current date)
\** automatically numbered footnote
\*' acute accent (before letter)
\*` grave accent (before letter)
\*^ circumflex (before letter)
\*, cedilla (before letter)
\*: umlaut (before letter)
\*~ tilde (before letter)
\(BU bullet item
\(DT date (month day, yr)
\(EM em dash
\(Tm trademark character (TM)

When using the extended accent mark definitions available with .AM, these strings should come after, rather than before, the letter to be accented.



nroff and troff definitions of mm.

col(1), eqn(1), nroff(1), refer(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(7)

Floating keeps and regular keeps are diverted to the same space, so they cannot be mixed together with predictable results.

January 1, 1997 OmniOS