The /etc/gateways file is used by the routing daemon,
in.routed(8). When the daemon starts, it reads /etc/gateways to
find such distant gateways that cannot be located using only information from
a routing socket, to discover if some of the local gateways are passive, and
to obtain other parameters.
The /etc/gateways file consists of a series of lines, each
in one of the two formats shown below or consisting of parameters described
later. Blank lines and lines starting with "#" are treated
One format specifies networks:
net Nname[/mask] gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | external>
The other format specifies hosts:
host Hname gateway Gname metric value <passive | active | external>
Host hname is equivalent to net nname/32.
The parameters in the lines shown above are described as
Nname or Hname
Name of the destination network or host. It can be a
symbolic network name or an Internet address specified in dot
). If it is a name, then it must either be defined in
, or a naming service must have been
started before in.routed(8)
An optional number between 1 and 32 indicating the
netmask associated with Nname.
Name or address of the gateway to which RIP responses
should be forwarded.
The hop count to the destination host or network.
passive | active | external
One of these keywords must be present to indicate whether
the gateway should be treated as passive or active, or whether the gateway is
external to the scope of the RIP protocol. A passive gateway is not expected
to exchange routing information, while gateways marked active should be
willing to exchange RIP packets. See in.routed(8)
After turning on debugging in in.routed with the -t
option, you can see that lines that follow the format described above create
pseudo-interfaces. To set parameters for remote or external interfaces, use
a line starting with if=alias(Hname),
if=remote(Hname), and so forth.
For backward compatibility with the previous Solaris
in.routed implementation, three special keyword formats are accepted.
If present, these forms must each be on a separate line, and must not be
combined on the same line with any of the keywords listed elsewhere in this
document. These three forms are:
Disable all RIP processing on the specified
Disable the processing of received RIP responses on the
Disable RIP output on the specified interface.
Lines that start with neither net nor host must
consist of one or more of the following parameter settings, separated by
commas or blanks:
Indicates that the other parameters on the line apply
only to the interface name ifname. If this parameter is not specified,
then other parameters on the line apply to all interfaces.
Advertises a route to network nname with mask mask and
the supplied metric (default 1). This is useful for filling holes in
CIDR allocations. This parameter must appear by itself on a line. The network
number must specify a full, 32-bit value, as in 192.0.2.0 instead of
Specifies that the netmask of the network of which
nname/mask1 is a subnet should be mask2. For example,
ripv1_mask=192.0.2.16/28,27 marks 192.0.2.16/28 as a subnet of
192.0.2.0/27 instead of 192.0.2.0/24. It is better to turn on
RIPv2 instead of using this facility. See the description of ripv2_out,
Specifies a RIPv2 cleartext password that will be
included on all RIPv2 responses sent, and checked on all RIPv2 responses
received. Any blanks, tab characters, commas, or "#",
"|", or NULL characters in the password must be escaped with
a backslash (\). The common escape sequences \n, \r,
\t, \b, and \xxx have their usual meanings. The
KeyID must be unique but is ignored for cleartext passwords. If
present, start and stop are timestamps in the form
year/month/day@hour:minute. They specify when the password is valid. The valid
password with the longest future is used on output packets, unless all
passwords have expired, in which case the password that expired most recently
is used. If no passwords are valid yet, no password is output. Incoming
packets can carry any password that is valid, will be valid within 24 hours,
or that was valid within 24 hours. To protect password secrecy, the passwd
settings are valid only in the /etc/gateways file and only when that
file is readable only by UID 0.
Specifies a RIPv2 MD5 password. Except that a KeyID is
required, this keyword is similar to passwd (described above).
Turns off aggregation of subnets in RIPv1 and RIPv2
Turns off acceptance of host routes.
Turns off aggregation of networks into supernets in RIPv2
Marks the interface not to be advertised in updates sent
over other interfaces, and turns off all RIP and router discovery through the
Disables all RIP processing on the specified interface.
If no interfaces are allowed to process RIP packets, in.routed
purely as a router discovery daemon.
Note that turning off RIP without explicitly turning on router
discovery advertisements with rdisc_adv or -s causes
in.routed to act as a client router discovery daemon, which does not
Causes RIPv2 packets to be broadcast instead of
Causes RIPv1 received responses to be ignored.
Causes RIPv2 received responses to be ignored.
Turns on RIPv2 output and causes RIPv2 advertisements to
be multicast when possible.
Equivalent to no_ripv1_in and ripv2_out.
This enables RIPv2 and disables RIPv1.
Disables the Internet Router Discovery Protocol.
Disables the transmission of Router Discovery
Specifies that Router Discovery solicitations should be
sent, even on point-to-point links, which, by default, only listen to Router
Disables the transmission of Router Discovery
Specifies that Router Discovery Advertisements should be
sent, even on point-to-point links, which by default only listen to Router
Specifies that Router Discovery packets should be
broadcast instead of multicast.
Sets the preference in Router Discovery Advertisements to
the optionally signed integer N. The default preference is 0. Default
routes with higher or less negative preferences are preferred by
Sets the nominal interval with which Router Discovery
Advertisements are transmitted to N seconds and their lifetime to
Has an identical effect to -F
net[/mask][=metric] with the network number and netmask
coming from the specified interface.
Similar to fake_default. To prevent RIPv1
listeners from receiving RIPv2 routes when those routes are multicast, this
feature causes a RIPv1 default route to be broadcast to RIPv1 listeners.
Unless modified with fake_default, the default route is broadcast with
a metric of 14. That serves as a poor man's router discovery
Causes RIP packets from that router and other routers
named in other trust_gateway keywords to be accepted, and packets from
other routers to be ignored. If networks are specified, then routes to other
networks will be ignored from that router.
Causes RIP to allow ICMP Redirect messages when the
system is acting as a router and forwarding packets. Otherwise, ICMP Redirect
messages are overridden.
By default, RIPv1 advertisements over point-to-point
links are sent to the peer's address (255.255.255.255, if none is available),
and RIPv2 advertisements are sent to either the RIP multicast address or the
peer's address if no_rip_mcast is set. This option overrides those
defaults and configures a specific address to use on the indicated interface.
This can be used to set a broadcast type advertisement on a point-to-point