SLP_API(3SLP) Service Location Protocol Library Functions SLP_API(3SLP)

slp_api - Service Location Protocol Application Programming Interface

cc [ flag ... ] file ... -lslp  [ library ... ]
#include <slp.h>

The slp_api is a C language binding that maps directly into the Service Location Protocol ("SLP") defined by RFC 2614. This implementation requires minimal overhead. With the exception of the SLPDereg() and SLPDelAttrs() functions, which map into different uses of the SLP deregister request, there is one C language function per protocol request. Parameters are for the most part character buffers. Memory management is kept simple because the client allocates most memory and client callback functions are required to copy incoming parameters into memory allocated by the client code. Any memory returned directly from the API functions is deallocated using the SLPFree() function.

To conform with standard C practice, all character strings passed to and returned through the API are null-terminated, even though the SLP protocol does not use null-terminated strings. Strings passed as parameters are UTF-8 but they may still be passed as a C string (a null-terminated sequence of bytes.) Escaped characters must be encoded by the API client as UTF-8. In the common case of US-ASCII, the usual one byte per character C strings work. API functions assist in escaping and unescaping strings.

Unless otherwise noted, parameters to API functions and callbacks are non-NULL. Some parameters may have other restrictions. If any parameter fails to satisfy the restrictions on its value, the operation returns a PARAMETER_BAD error.

Query strings, attribute registration lists, attribute deregistration lists, scope lists, and attribute selection lists follow the syntax described in RFC 2608. The API reflects the strings passed from clients directly into protocol requests, and reflects out strings returned from protocol replies directly to clients. As a consequence, clients are responsible for formatting request strings, including escaping and converting opaque values to escaped byte-encoded strings. Similarly, on output, clients are required to unescape strings and convert escaped string-encoded opaques to binary. The SLPEscape() and SLPUnescape() functions can be used for escaping SLP reserved characters, but they perform no opaque processing.

Opaque values consist of a character buffer that contains a UTF-8-encoded string, the first characters of which are the non UTF-8 encoding "\ff". Subsequent characters are the escaped values for the original bytes in the opaque. The escape convention is relatively simple. An escape consists of a backslash followed by the two hexadecimal digits encoding the byte. An example is "\2c" for the byte 0x2c. Clients handle opaque processing themselves, since the algorithm is relatively simple and uniform.

The system properties established in slp.conf(4), the configuration file, are accessible through the SLPGetProperty() and SLPSetProperty() functions. The SLPSetProperty() function modifies properties only in the running process, not in the configuration file. Errors are checked when the property is used and, as with parsing the configuration file, are logged at the LOG_INFO priority. Program execution continues without interruption by substituting the default for the erroneous parameter. In general, individual agents should rarely be required to override these properties, since they reflect properties of the SLP network that are not of concern to individual agents. If changes are required, system administrators should modify the configuration file.

Properties are global to the process, affecting all threads and all handles created with SLPOpen().

The only API functions that return memory specifically requiring deallocation on the part of the client are SLPParseSrvURL(), SLPFindScope(), SLPEscape(), and SLPUnescape(). Free this memory with SLPFree() when it is no longer needed. Do not free character strings returned by means of the SLPGetProperty() function.

Any memory passed to callbacks belongs to the library, and it must not be retained by the client code. Otherwise, crashes are possible. Clients must copy data out of the callback parameters. No other use of the memory in callback parameters is allowed.

If a handle parameter to an API function is opened asynchronously, the API function calls on the handle to check the other parameters, opens the appropriate operation, and returns immediately. If an error occurs in the process of starting the operation, the error code is returned. If the handle parameter is opened synchronously, the function call is blocked until all results are available, and it returns only after the results are reported through the callback function. The return code indicates whether any errors occurred during the operation.

The callback function is called whenever the API library has results to report. The callback code is required to check the error code parameter before looking at the other parameters. If the error code is not SLP_OK, the other parameters may be NULL or otherwise invalid. The API library can terminate any outstanding operation on which an error occurs. The callback code can similarly indicate that the operation should be terminated by passing back SLP_FALSE to indicate that it is not interested in receiving more results. Callback functions are not permitted to recursively call into the API on the same SLPHandle. If an attempt is made to call into the API, the API function returns SLP_HANDLE_IN_USE. Prohibiting recursive callbacks on the same handle simplifies implementation of thread safe code, since locks held on the handle will not be in place during a second outcall on the handle.

The total number of results received can be controlled by setting the net.slp.maxResults parameter.

On the last call to a callback, whether asynchronous or synchronous, the status code passed to the callback has value SLP_LAST_CALL. There are four reasons why the call can terminate:

DA reply received

A reply from a DA has been received and therefore nothing more is expected.

Multicast terminated

The multicast convergence time has elapsed and the API library multicast code is giving up.

Multicast null results

Nothing new has been received during multicast for awhile and the API library multicast code is giving up on that (as an optimization).

Maximum results

The user has set the net.slp.maxResults property and that number of replies has been collected and returned.

The API library reads slp.conf(4), the default configuration file, to obtain the operating parameters. You can specify the location of this file with the SLP_CONF_FILE environment variable. If you do not set this variable, or the file it refers to is invalid, the API will use the default configuration file at /etc/inet/slp.conf instead.

The data structures used by the SLP API are as follows:


typedef enum {
     SLP_LIFETIME_DEFAULT = 10800,
     SLP_LIFETIME_MAXIMUM = 65535
} SLPURLLifetime;

The enumeration SLPURLLifetime contains URL lifetime values, in seconds, that are frequently used. SLP_LIFETIME_DEFAULT is 3 hours, while SLP_LIFETIME_MAXIMUM is 18 hours, which corresponds to the maximum size of the lifetime field in SLP messages. Note that on registration SLP_LIFETIME_MAXIMUM causes the advertisement to be continually reregistered until the process exits.


typedef enum {
     SLP_FALSE = 0,
     SLP_TRUE = 1
} SLPBoolean;

The enumeration SLPBoolean is used as a Boolean flag.


typedef struct srvurl {
     char *s_pcSrvType;
     char *s_pcHost;
     int   s_iPort;
     char *s_pcNetFamily;
     char *s_pcSrvPart;
} SLPSrvURL;

The SLPSrvURL structure is filled in by the SLPParseSrvURL() function with information parsed from a character buffer containing a service URL. The fields correspond to different parts of the URL, as follows:

s_pcSrvType

A pointer to a character string containing the service type name, including naming authority.

s_pcHost

A pointer to a character string containing the host identification information.

s_iPort

The port number, or zero, if none. The port is only available if the transport is IP.

s_pcNetFamily

A pointer to a character string containing the network address family identifier. Possible values are "ipx" for the IPX family, "at" for the Appletalk family, and "", the empty string, for the IP address family.

s_pcSrvPart

The remainder of the URL, after the host identification.

The host and port should be sufficient to open a socket to the machine hosting the service; the remainder of the URL should allow further differentiation of the service.


typedef void* SLPHandle;

The SLPHandle type is returned by SLPOpen() and is a parameter to all SLP functions. It serves as a handle for all resources allocated on behalf of the process by the SLP library. The type is opaque.

Include a function pointer to a callback function specific to a particular API operation in the parameter list when the API function is invoked. The callback function is called with the results of the operation in both the synchronous and asynchronous cases. When the callback function is invoked, the memory included in the callback parameters is owned by the API library, and the client code in the callback must copy out the contents if it wants to maintain the information longer than the duration of the current callback call.

Each callback parameter list contains parameters for reporting the results of the operation, as well as an error code parameter and a cookie parameter. The error code parameter reports the error status of the ongoing (for asynchronous) or completed (for synchronous) operation. The cookie parameter allows the client code that starts the operation by invoking the API function to pass information down to the callback without using global variables. The callback returns an SLPBoolean to indicate whether the API library should continue processing the operation. If the value returned from the callback is SLP_TRUE, asynchronous operations are terminated. Synchronous operations ignore the return since the operation is already complete.


typedef void SLPRegReport(SLPHandle hSLP,
     SLPError errCode,
     void *pvCookie);

SLPRegReport() is the callback function to the SLPReg(), SLPDereg(), and SLPDelAttrs() functions. The SLPRegReport() callback has the following parameters:

hSLP

The SLPHandle() used to initiate the operation.

errCode

An error code indicating if an error occurred during the operation.

pvCookie

Memory passed down from the client code that called the original API function, starting the operation. It may be NULL.


typedef SLPBoolean SLPSrvTypeCallback(SLPHandle hSLP,
     const char* pcSrvTypes,
     SLPError errCode,
     void *pvCookie);

The SLPSrvTypeCallback() type is the type of the callback function parameter to the SLPFindSrvTypes() function. The results are collated when the hSLP handle is opened either synchronously or asynchronously. The SLPSrvTypeCallback() callback has the following parameters:

hSLP

The SLPHandle used to initiate the operation.

pcSrvTypes

A character buffer containing a comma-separated, null-terminated list of service types.

errCode

An error code indicating if an error occurred during the operation. The callback should check this error code before processing the parameters. If the error code is other than SLP_OK, then the API library may choose to terminate the outstanding operation.

pvCookie

Memory passed down from the client code that called the original API function, starting the operation. It can be NULL.


typedef SLPBoolean SLPSrvURLCallback(SLPHandle hSLP,
     const char* pcSrvURL,
     unsigned short usLifetime,
     SLPError errCode,
     void *pvCookie);

The SLPSrvURLCallback() type is the type of the callback function parameter to the SLPFindSrvs() function. The results are collated, regardless of whether the hSLP was opened collated or uncollated. The SLPSrvURLCallback() callback has the following parameters:

hSLP

The SLPHandle used to initiate the operation.

pcSrvURL

A character buffer containing the returned service URL.

usLifetime

An unsigned short giving the life time of the service advertisement. The value must be an unsigned integer less than or equal to SLP_LIFETIME_MAXIMUM.

errCode

An error code indicating if an error occurred during the operation. The callback should check this error code before processing the parameters. If the error code is other than SLP_OK, then the API library may choose to terminate the outstanding operation.

pvCookie

Memory passed down from the client code that called the original API function, starting the operation. It can be NULL.


typedef SLPBoolean SLPAttrCallback(SLPHandle hSLP,
     const char* pcAttrList,
     SLPError errCode,
     void *pvCookie);

The SLPAttrCallback() type is the type of the callback function parameter to the SLPFindAttrs() function.

The behavior of the callback differs depending upon whether the attribute request was by URL or by service type. If the SLPFindAttrs() operation was originally called with a URL, the callback is called once, in addition to the last call, regardless of whether the handle was opened asynchronously or synchronously. The pcAttrList parameter contains the requested attributes as a comma-separated list. It is empty if no attributes match the original tag list.

If the SLPFindAttrs() operation was originally called with a service type, the value of pcAttrList and the calling behavior depend upon whether the handle was opened asynchronously or synchronously. If the handle was opened asynchronously, the callback is called every time the API library has results from a remote agent. The pcAttrList parameter is collated between calls, and contains a comma-separated list of the results from the agent that immediately returned. If the handle was opened synchronously, the results are collated from all returning agents, the callback is called once, and the pcAttrList parameter is set to the collated result.

SLPAttrCallback() callback has the following parameters:

hSLP

The SLPHandle used to initiate the operation.

pcAttrList

A character buffer containing a comma-separated and null-terminated list of attribute id/value assignments, in SLP wire format.

errCode

An error code indicating if an error occurred during the operation. The callback should check this error code before processing the parameters. If the error code is other than SLP_OK, then the API library may choose to terminate the outstanding operation.

pvCookie

Memory passed down from the client code that called the original API function, starting the operation. It can be NULL.

An interface that is part of the SLP API may return one of the following values.

SLP_LAST_CALL

The SLP_LAST_CALL code is passed to callback functions when the API library has no more data for them and therefore no further calls will be made to the callback on the currently outstanding operation. The callback uses this to signal the main body of the client code that no more data will be forthcoming on the operation, so that the main body of the client code can break out of data collection loops. On the last call of a callback during both a synchronous and asynchronous call, the error code parameter has value SLP_LAST_CALL, and the other parameters are all NULL. If no results are returned by an API operation, then only one call is made, with the error parameter set to SLP_LAST_CALL.

SLP_OK

The SLP_OK code indicates that the no error occurred during the operation.

SLP_LANGUAGE_NOT_SUPPORTED

No DA or SA has service advertisement information in the language requested, but at least one DA or SA might have information for that service in another language.

SLP_PARSE_ERROR

The SLP message was rejected by a remote SLP agent. The API returns this error only when no information was retrieved, and at least one SA or DA indicated a protocol error. The data supplied through the API may be malformed or damaged in transit.

SLP_INVALID_REGISTRATION

The API may return this error if an attempt to register a service was rejected by all DAs because of a malformed URL or attributes.SLP does not return the error if at least one DA accepts the registration.

SLP_SCOPE_NOT_SUPPORTED

The API returns this error if the UA or SA has been configured with the net.slp.useScopes list of scopes and the SA request did not specify one or more of these allowable scopes, and no others. It may also be returned by a DA if the scope included in a request is not supported by a DA.

SLP_AUTHENTICATION_ABSENT

This error arises when the UA or SA failed to send an authenticator for requests or registrations when security is enabled and thus required.

SLP_AUTHENTICATION_FAILED

This error arises when a authentication on an SLP message received from a remote SLP agent failed.

SLP_INVALID_UPDATE

An update for a nonexisting registration was issued, or the update includes a service type or scope different than that in the initial registration.

SLP_REFRESH_REJECTED

The SA attempted to refresh a registration more frequently than the minimum refresh interval. The SA should call the appropriate API function to obtain the minimum refresh interval to use.

SLP_NOT_IMPLEMENTED

An outgoing request overflowed the maximum network MTU size. The request should be reduced in size or broken into pieces and tried again.

SLP_BUFFER_OVERFLOW

An outgoing request overflowed the maximum network MTU size. The request should be reduced in size or broken into pieces and tried again.

SLP_NETWORK_TIMED_OUT

When no reply can be obtained in the time specified by the configured timeout interval, this error is returned.

SLP_NETWORK_INIT_FAILED

If the network cannot initialize properly, this error is returned.

SLP_MEMORY_ALLOC_FAILED

If the API fails to allocate memory, the operation is aborted and returns this.

SLP_PARAMETER_BAD

If a parameter passed into an interface is bad, this error is returned.

SLP_NETWORK_ERROR

The failure of networking during normal operations causes this error to be returned.

SLP_INTERNAL_SYSTEM_ERROR

A basic failure of the API causes this error to be returned. This occurs when a system call or library fails. The operation could not recover.

SLP_HANDLE_IN_USE

In the C API, callback functions are not permitted to recursively call into the API on the same SLPHandle, either directly or indirectly. If an attempt is made to do so, this error is returned from the called API function

SLPOpen()
open an SLP handle

SLPClose()

close an open SLP handle

SLPReg()

register a service advertisement

SLPDereg()

deregister a service advertisement

SLPDelAttrs()

delete attributes

SLPFindSrvTypes()

return service types

SLPFindSrvs()

return service URLs

SLPFindAttrs()

return service attributes

SLPGetRefreshInterval()

return the maximum allowed refresh interval for SAs

SLPFindScopes()

return list of configured and discovered scopes

SLPParseSrvURL()

parse service URL

SLPEscape()

escape special characters

SLPUnescape()

translate escaped characters into UTF-8

SLPGetProperty()

return SLP configuration property

SLPSetProperty()

set an SLP configuration property

slp_strerror()

map SLP error code to message

SLPFree()

free memory

When SLP_CONF_FILE is set, use this file for configuration.

See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

ATTRIBUTE TYPE ATTRIBUTE VALUE
CSI CSI-enabled
MT-Level Safe

slpd(1M), slp.conf(4), slpd.reg(4), attributes(5)

System Administration Guide: Network Services

Guttman, E., Perkins, C., Veizades, J., and Day, M. RFC 2608, Service Location Protocol, Version 2. The Internet Society. June 1999.

Kempf, J. and Guttman, E. RFC 2614, An API for Service Location. The Internet Society. June 1999.

June 20, 2021 OmniOS