SD(7D) Devices SD(7D)

sd - SCSI disk and ATAPI/SCSI CD-ROM device driver

sd@target,lun:partition

To open a device without checking if the vtoc is valid, use the O_NDELAY flag. When the device is opened using O_NDELAY, the first read or write to the device that happens after the open results in the label being read if the label is not currently valid. Once read, the label remains valid until the last close of the device. Except for reading the label, O_NDELAY has no impact on the driver.

The sd SCSI and SCSI/ATAPI driver supports embedded SCSI-2 and CCS-compatible SCSI disk and CD-ROM drives, ATAPI 2.6 (SFF-8020i)-compliant CD-ROM drives, SFF-8090-compliant SCSI/ATAPI DVD-ROM drives, IOMEGA SCSI/ATAPI ZIP drives, SCSI JAZ drives, and USB mass storage devices (refer to scsa2usb(7D)).

To determine the disk drive type, use the SCSI/ATAPI inquiry command and read the volume label stored on block 0 of the drive. (The volume label describes the disk geometry and partitioning and must be present for the disk to be mounted by the system.) A volume label is not required for removable, re-writable or read-only media.

The sd driver supports embedded SCSI-2 and CCS-compatible SCSI disk and CD-ROM drives, ATAPI 2.6 (SFF-8020i)-compliant CD-ROM drives, SFF-8090-compliant SCSI/ATAPI DVD-ROM drives, IOMEGA SCSI/ATAPI ZIP drives, and SCSI JAZ drives.

The x86 BIOS legacy requires a master boot record (MBR) and fdisk table in the first physical sector of the bootable media. If the x86 hard disk contains a Solaris disk label, it is located in the second 512-byte sector of the FDISK partition.

Block-files access the disk using normal buffering mechanism and are read-from and written-to without regard to physical disk records. A raw interface enables direct transmission between the disk and the user's read or write buffer. A single read or write call usually results in a single I/O operation, therefore raw I/O is more efficient when many bytes are transmitted. Block files names are found in /dev/dsk; raw file names are found in /dev/rdsk.

I/O requests to the raw device must be aligned on a 512-byte (DEV_BSIZE) boundary and all I/O request lengths must be in multiples of 512 bytes. Requests that do not meet these requirements will trigger an EINVAL error. There are no alignment or length restrictions on I/O requests to the block device.

A CD-ROM disk is single-sided and contains approximately 640 megabytes of data or 74 minutes of audio. When the CD-ROM is opened, the eject button is disabled to prevent manual removal of the disk until the last close() is called. No volume label is required for a CD-ROM. The disk geometry and partitioning information are constant and never change. If the CD-ROM contains data recorded in a Solaris-aware file system format, it can be mounted using the appropriate Solaris file system support.

DVD-ROM media can be single or double-sided and can be recorded upon using a single or double layer structure. Double-layer media provides parallel or opposite track paths. A DVD-ROM can hold from between 4.5 Gbytes and 17 Gbytes of data, depending on the layer structure used for recording and if the DVD-ROM is single or double-sided.

When the DVD-ROM is opened, the eject button is disabled to prevent the manual removal of a disk until the last close() is called. No volume label is required for a DVD-ROM. If the DVD-ROM contains data recorded in a Solaris-aware file system format, it can be mounted using the appropriate Solaris file system support.

ZIP/JAZ media provide varied data capacity points; a single JAZ drive can store up to 2 GBytes of data, while a ZIP-250 can store up to 250MBytes of data. ZIP/JAZ drives can be read-from or written-to using the appropriate drive.

When a ZIP/JAZ drive is opened, the eject button is disabled to prevent the manual removal of a disk until the last close() is called. No volume label is required for a ZIP/JAZ drive. If the ZIP/JAZ drive contains data recorded in a Solaris-aware file system format, it can be mounted using the appropriate Solaris file system support.

Each device maintains I/O statistics for the device and for partitions allocated for that device. For each device/partition, the driver accumulates reads, writes, bytes read, and bytes written. The driver also initiates hi-resolution time stamps at queue entry and exit points to enable monitoring of residence time and cumulative residence-length product for each queue.

Not all device drivers make per-partition IO statistics available for reporting. sd and ssd(7D) per-partition statistics are enabled by default but may be disabled in their configuration files.

Refer to dkio(7I), and cdio(7I)

EACCES
Permission denied

EBUSY

The partition was opened exclusively by another thread

EFAULT

The argument features a bad address

EINVAL

Invalid argument

ENOTTY

The device does not support the requested ioctl function

ENXIO

During opening, the device did not exist. During close, the drive unlock failed

EROFS

The device is read-only

EAGAIN

Resource temporarily unavailable

EINTR

A signal was caught during the execution of the ioctl() function

ENOMEM

Insufficient memory

EPERM

Insufficient access permission

EIO

An I/O error occurred. Refer to notes for details on copy-protected DVD-ROM media.

The sd driver can be configured by defining properties in the sd.conf file. The sd driver supports the following properties:

enable-partition-kstats

The default value is 1, which causes partition IO statistics to be maintained. Set this value to zero to prevent the driver from recording partition statistics. This slightly reduces the CPU overhead for IO, minimizes the amount of sar(1) data collected and makes these statistics unavailable for reporting by iostat(1M) even though the -p/-P option is specified. Regardless of this setting, disk IO statistics are always maintained.

qfull-retries

The supplied value is passed as the qfull-retries capability value of the HBA driver. See scsi_ifsetcap(9F) for details.

qfull-retry-interval

The supplied value is passed as the qfull-retry interval capability value of the HBA driver. See scsi_ifsetcap(9F) for details.

allow-bus-device-reset

The default value is 1, which allows resetting to occur. Set this value to 0 (zero) to prevent the sd driver from calling scsi_reset(9F) with a second argument of RESET_TARGET when in error-recovery mode. This scsi_reset(9F) call may prompt the HBA driver to send a SCSI Bus Device Reset message. The scsi_reset(9F) call with a second argument of RESET_TARGET may result from an explicit request via the USCSICMD ioctl. Some high-availability multi-initiator systems may wish to prohibit the Bus Device Reset message; to do this, set the allow-bus-device-reset property to 0.

optical-device-bind

Controls the binding of the driver to non self-identifying SCSI target optical devices. (See scsi(4)). The default value is 1, which causes sd to bind to DTYPE_OPTICAL devices (as noted in scsi(4)). Setting this value to 0 prevents automatic binding. The default behavior for the SPARC-based sd driver prior to Solaris 9 was not to bind to optical devices.

power-condition

Boolean type, when set to False, it indicates that the disk does not support power condition field in the START STOP UNIT command.

In addition to the above properties, some device-specific tunables can be configured in sd.conf using the sd-config-list global property. The value of this property is a list of duplets. The formal syntax is:


sd-config-list = <duplet> [, <duplet> ]* ;
where
<duplet>:= "<vid+pid>" , "<tunable-list>"
and
<tunable-list>:= <tunable>  [, <tunable> ]*;
<tunable> = <name> : <value>
The <vid+pid> is the string that is returned by the target device
on a SCSI inquiry command.
The <tunable-list> contains one or more tunables to apply to
all target devices with the specified <vid+pid>.
Each <tunable> is a <name> : <value> pair. Supported
tunable names are:
   delay-busy: when busy, nsecs of delay before retry.
   retries-timeout: retries to perform on an IO timeout.

mmc-gesn-polling

For optical drives compliant with MMC-3 and supporting the GET EVENT STATUS NOTIFICATION command, this command is used for periodic media state polling, usually initiated by the DKIOCSTATE dkio(7I) ioctl. To disable the use of this command, set this boolean property to false. In that case, either the TEST UNIT READY or zero-length WRITE(10) command is used instead.


The following is an example of a global sd-config-list property:
   sd-config-list =
      "SUN     T4", "delay-busy:600, retries-timeout:6",
      "SUN     StorEdge_3510", "retries-timeout:3";

/kernel/drv/sd.conf
Driver configuration file

/dev/dsk/cntndnsn

Block files

/dev/rdsk/cntndnsn

Raw files

Where:

cn

controller n

tn

SCSI target id n (0-6)

dn

SCSI LUN n (0-7 normally; some HBAs support LUNs to 15 or 32. See the specific manpage for details)

sn

partition n (0-7)

/dev/rdsk/cntndnpn
raw files

Where:

pn

Where n=0 the node corresponds to the entire disk.

sar(1), cfgadm_scsi(1M), fdisk(1M), format(1M), iostat(1M), close(2), ioctl(2), lseek(2), read(2), write(2), driver.conf(4), scsi(4), filesystem(5), scsa2usb(7D), ssd(7D), hsfs(7FS), pcfs(7FS), udfs(7FS), cdio(7I), dkio(7I), scsi_ifsetcap(9F), scsi_reset(9F)

ANSI Small Computer System Interface-2 (SCSI-2)

ATA Packet Interface for CD-ROMs, SFF-8020i

Mt.Fuji Commands for CD and DVD, SFF8090v3


Error for Command:<command name>
Error Level: Fatal
Requested Block: <n>
Error  Block: <m>
Vendor:'<vendorname>'
Serial Number:'<serial number>'
Sense Key:<sense key name>

ASC: 0x<a> (<ASC name>), ASCQ: 0x<b>, FRU: 0x<c>

The command indicated by <command name> failed. The Requested Block is the block where the transfer started and the Error Block is the block that caused the error. Sense Key, ASC, and ASCQ information is returned by the target in response to a request sense command.

Caddy not inserted in drive

The drive is not ready because no caddy has been inserted.

Check Condition on REQUEST SENSE

A REQUEST SENSE command completed with a check condition. The original command will be retried a number of times.

Label says <m> blocks Drive says <n> blocks

There is a discrepancy between the label and what the drive returned on the READ CAPACITY command.

Not enough sense information

The request sense data was less than expected.

Request Sense couldn't get sense data

The REQUEST SENSE command did not transfer any data.

Reservation Conflict

The drive was reserved by another initiator.

SCSI transport failed: reason 'xxxx': {retrying|giving up}

The host adapter has failed to transport a command to the target for the reason stated. The driver will either retry the command or, ultimately, give up.

Unhandled Sense Key<n>

The REQUEST SENSE data included an invalid sense.

Unit not ready. Additional sense code 0x

<n> The drive is not ready.

Can't do switch back to mode 1

A failure to switch back to read mode 1.

Corrupt label - bad geometry

The disk label is corrupted.

Corrupt label - label checksum failed

The disk label is corrupted.

Corrupt label - wrong magic number

The disk label is corrupted.

Device busy too long

The drive returned busy during a number of retries.

Disk not responding to selection

The drive is powered down or died

Failed to handle UA

A retry on a Unit Attention condition failed.

I/O to invalid geometry

The geometry of the drive could not be established.

Incomplete read/write - retrying/giving up

There was a residue after the command completed normally.

No bp for direct access device format geometry

A bp with consistent memory could not be allocated.

No bp for disk label

A bp with consistent memory could not be allocated.

No bp for fdisk

A bp with consistent memory could not be allocated.

No bp for rigid disk geometry

A bp with consistent memory could not be allocated.

No mem for property

Free memory pool exhausted.

No memory for direct access device format geometry

Free memory pool exhausted.

No memory for disk label

Free memory pool exhausted.

No memory for rigid disk geometry

The disk label is corrupted.

No resources for dumping

A packet could not be allocated during dumping.

Offline

Drive went offline; probably powered down.

Requeue of command fails

Driver attempted to retry a command and experienced a transport error.

sdrestart transport failed()

Driver attempted to retry a command and experienced a transport error.

Transfer length not modulo

Illegal request size.

Transport of request sense fails()

Driver attempted to submit a request sense command and failed.

Transport rejected()

Host adapter driver was unable to accept a command.

Unable to read label

Failure to read disk label.

Unit does not respond to selection

Drive went offline; probably powered down.

DVD-ROM media containing DVD-Video data may follow/adhere to the requirements of content scrambling system or copy protection scheme. Reading of copy-protected sector will cause I/O error. Users are advised to use the appropriate playback software to view video contents on DVD-ROM media containing DVD-Video data.
September 12, 2020 OmniOS