NDP(4P) Protocols NDP(4P)

ndp, NDP
Neighbor Discovery Protocol

#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/sockio.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <net/if.h>
s = socket(PF_INET6, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

struct lifreq lifr;
ioctl(s, SIOCLIFGETND, &lifr);
ioctl(s, SIOCLIFSETND, &lifr);
ioctl(s, SIOCLIFDELND, &lifr);

The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol used to distribute and request information about neighboring IPv6 systems on the local network, much like ARP(4P) for IPv4. NDP is also responsible for spreading information about the network gateway and how hosts should configure themselves (see in.ndpd(8) for more on how this happens).

The operating system provides several ioctls to help manipulate the mappings obtained through NDP. They are SIOCLIFGETND, SIOCLIFSETND, and SIOCLIFDELND, for getting, setting, and deleting respectively. Each of these ioctls takes a struct lifreq (see if(4P) for details), where the lifr_lifru field is of type struct lif_nd_req:
typedef struct lif_nd_req {
        struct sockaddr_storage lnr_addr;
        uint8_t                 lnr_state_create;
        uint8_t                 lnr_state_same_lla;
        uint8_t                 lnr_state_diff_lla;
        int                     lnr_hdw_len;
        int                     lnr_flags;
        int                     lnr_pad0;
        char                    lnr_hdw_addr[ND_MAX_HDW_LEN];
} lif_nd_req_t;

The lnr_addr field should be filled in with an IPv6 address (see sockaddr_in6(3SOCKET)), and the lnr_hdw_addr is the link-layer address of length lnr_hdw_len.

State flags for lnr_state_create, lnr_state_same_lla, and lnr_state_diff_lla can be set to one of the following values:

ND_UNCHANGED
For ioctls that don't modify state
ND_INCOMPLETE
Address resolution is currently in progress
ND_REACHABLE
The link-layer address has recently been reachable
ND_STALE
The link-layer address may be unreachable, and the system shouldn't do anything
ND_DELAY
This entry hasn't yet started sending Neighbor Solicitations
ND_PROBE
The operating system is currently sending out Neighbor Solicitations for the address
ND_UNREACHABLE
The link-layer address is unreachable, and this entry is going to be deleted.

When creating a new entry, the only valid values for lnr_state_create are ND_REACHABLE and ND_STALE. Any other value will return EINVAL. The lnr_state_same_lla and lnr_state_diff_lla fields are reserved for future use and can be safely set to ND_UNCHANGED and ND_STALE respectively.

Flags that can be placed in lnr_flags are:

NDF_ISROUTER_ON
Mark this entry as being a router. This will cause Neighbor Advertisements for this address to be sent with the R-bit (Router).
NDF_ISROUTER_OFF
If this entry was flagged as being a router, remove the flag.
NDF_ANYCAST_ON
Mark this entry as being for an anycast address. This prevents sending Neighbor Advertisements with the O-bit (Override).
NDF_ANYCAST_OFF
If this entry was flagged as an anycast address, remove the flag.
NDF_STATIC
Prevent this entry from being deleted by the system.

When using SIOCLIFGETND, these flags represent the current state of the corresponding Neighbor Cache Entry. When using SIOCLIFSETND, these flags represent what changes should be applied to the underlying entry.

The only fields that need to be set for the SIOCLIFGETND or SIOCLIFDELND ioctls are lifr_name and lnr_addr. All other fields should be zeroed out. After successfully getting an entry, the other fields will be filled in. When using SIOCLIFSETND, all fields should be set to an appropriate value, as described above, with the exception of lnr_pad0, which is unused and only exists for padding purposes.

After performing the ioctl, the following errors may be returned through the global errno variable:

EAFNOSUPPORT
A non-IPv6 socket was used to perform the ioctl.
EINVAL
The request contents were bad. This could be because conflicting flags were used, the specified interface wasn't logical unit zero, or another reason.
ENOMEM
The system ran out of memory for internal data structures.
ENXIO
The specified interface does not exist.
EPERM
The caller does not have permission to modify the Neighbor Cache Entries associated with this interface. They may be lacking the PRIV_SYS_NET_CONFIG privilege (see privileges(7)), or the interface is managed by IPMP (IP Network Multipathing).
ESRCH
There is no entry matching the specified address.

The following examples demonstrate how to get and set NDP mappings using the provided ioctls. They can be compiled by using a C compiler and linking against the sockets library.

$ gcc -Wall -lsocket -o get get.c
$ cat get.c
/*
 * Example of getting a mapping for a node name.
 */
#include <strings.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/sockio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <net/if.h>

int get(char *host) {
	struct lifreq lifr;
	struct addrinfo hints, *serverinfo, *p;
	int err, s;

	bzero(&hints, sizeof (struct addrinfo));
	hints.ai_family = PF_INET6;
	hints.ai_protocol = IPPROTO_IPV6;

	if ((err = getaddrinfo(host, NULL, &hints, &serverinfo)) != 0) {
		(void) fprintf(stderr, "Unable to lookup %s: %s\n", host,
		    gai_strerror(err));
		return (1);
	}

	s = socket(AF_INET6, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
	if (s < 0) {
		perror("Failed to open IPv6 socket");
		return (1);
	}

	for (p = serverinfo; p != NULL; p = p->ai_next) {
		/* Zero out structure */
		bzero(&lifr, sizeof (struct lifreq));
		(void) strlcpy(lifr.lifr_name, "net0",
		    sizeof (lifr.lifr_name));
		(void) memcpy(&lifr.lifr_nd.lnr_addr, p->ai_addr,
		    sizeof (struct sockaddr_storage));

		/* Get mapping */
		if (ioctl(s, SIOCLIFGETND, &lifr) < 0) {
			perror("Unable to get NDP mapping");
			continue;
		}

		/*
		 * lifr.lifr_nd.lnr_hdw_addr now contains the MAC address,
		 * and can be used as desired.
		 */
	}

	/*
	 * Clean up linked list.
	 */
	freeaddrinfo(serverinfo);
	return (0);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	if (argc < 2)
		exit(1);
	return (get(argv[1]));
}

Deleting a mapping would work similarly, except that instead of using SIOCLIFGETND, you would instead use the SIOCLIFDELND ioctl.

$ gcc -Wall -lsocket -o set set.c
$ cat set.c
/*
 * Example of setting a mapping to an all-zero Ethernet address.
 */
#include <strings.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/sockio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <netdb.h>
#include <net/if.h>

int set(char *host) {
	struct lifreq lifr;
	struct addrinfo hints, *serverinfo, *p;
	int err, s;

	bzero(&hints, sizeof (struct addrinfo));
	hints.ai_family = PF_INET6;
	hints.ai_protocol = IPPROTO_IPV6;

	if ((err = getaddrinfo(host, NULL, &hints, &serverinfo)) != 0) {
		(void) fprintf(stderr, "Unable to lookup %s: %s\n", host,
		    gai_strerror(err));
		return (1);
	}

	s = socket(AF_INET6, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);
	if (s < 0) {
		perror("Failed to open IPv6 socket");
		return (1);
	}

	for (p = serverinfo; p != NULL; p = p->ai_next) {
		/* Zero out structure */
		bzero(&lifr, sizeof (struct lifreq));
		(void) strlcpy(lifr.lifr_name, "net0",
		    sizeof (lifr.lifr_name));
		(void) memcpy(&lifr.lifr_nd.lnr_addr, p->ai_addr,
		    sizeof (struct sockaddr_storage));

		lifr.lifr_nd.lnr_state_create = ND_REACHABLE;
		lifr.lifr_nd.lnr_flags = NDF_STATIC;

		/* Get mapping */
		if (ioctl(s, SIOCLIFSETND, &lifr) < 0) {
			perror("Unable to set NDP mapping");
			continue;
		}
	}

	/*
	 * Clean up linked list.
	 */
	freeaddrinfo(serverinfo);
	return (0);
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
	if (argc < 2)
		exit(1);
	return (set(argv[1]));
}

sockaddr_in6(3SOCKET), privileges(7), ifconfig(8), in.ndpd(8), ndp(8)

Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and Soliman, H., RFC 4861, Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6, September 2007.

September 2, 2015 OmniOS