CONNSTAT(1M) Maintenance Commands CONNSTAT(1M)

connstat
report TCP connection statistics

connstat [-eLP] [-4|-6] [-T d|u] [-F filter] [-i interval] [-c count] [-o field[,field]...]

The connstat command reports TCP connection statistics in tabular form. Each row of the table represents the activity of one connection. The connstat command adds virtually no overhead to run as it is aggregating statistics that are always collected in the kernel.

With no arguments, connstat prints a single report containing all TCP connections, and includes a basic set of fields representing IP address and port information, as well as connection state. The -o flag can be used to specify which fields to display, and other arguments to filter the set of connections included in the output.

The arguments are as follows:
, --ipv4
Only displays IPv4 connections.
, --ipv6
Only displays IPv6 connections
count, --count=count
Print a specified number of reports before exiting. This is used in conjunction with -i.
, --established
Only display connections that are in state ESTABLISHED. This is equivalent to including state=ESTABLISHED in the filter argument to the -F option.
filter, --filter=filter
Only display connections that match the filter argument provided. The format of the filter is:

field=value[,field=value]...

Fields that can currently be filtered are laddr, lport, raddr, rport, and state. See the Fields section for a description of these fields. The filter matches a connection if all of the filter elements match, and a field must only appears once in the filter.

interval, --interval=interval
Specify an output interval in seconds. For each interval, a report containing all connections appropriate given other command-line options is printed.
, --no-loopback
Exclude connections to the loopback address.
fields, --output=fields
Restrict the output to the specified comma-delimited list of field names. See the Fields section for information about possible fields.
, --parsable
Display using a stable, machine-parsable output format. The -o flag must also be given to specify which fields to output and their order. Each line of output will consist of comma-delimited (,) fields, and no header will be emittted. When also using the -T option, lines indicating the current time will begin with “= ”. See Example 4 for an example of how to process parsable output.
d|u, --timestamp=d|u
Print a timestamp before each block of output.

Specify u for a printed representation of the internal representation of time (see time(2)). Specify d for standard date format (see date(1)).

The following fields are supported. Field names are case insensitive. Unless otherwise indicated, the values of fields that represent a count (e.g. bytes or segments) are cumulative since the connection was established. Some of these fields refer to data segments, which are segments that contain non-zero amount of data. All sizes are in bytes.
cwnd
The size of the local TCP congestion window at this instant.
inbytes
The number of data bytes received. This does not include duplicate bytes received.
insegs
The number of data segments received. This does not include duplicate segments received.
inunorderbytes
The number of data bytes that were received out of order.
inunordersegs
The number of data segments that were received out of order.
laddr
The local IP address.
lport
The local TCP port.
mss
The maximum TCP segment size for this connection.
outbytes
The number of data bytes sent. This does not include retransmitted bytes counted by retransbytes.
outsegs
The number of data segments sent. This does not include segments containing retransmitted bytes counted by retranssegs.
raddr
The remote IP address.
retransbytes
The number of data bytes retransmitted.
retranssegs
The number of data segments sent that contained retransmitted bytes.
rport
The remote TCP port.
rto
The current retransmission timeout in milliseconds.
rtt
The current smoothed round-trip time to the peer in microseconds. The smoothed RTT average algorithm used is as described in RFC 6298.
rttc
The number of times that a round-trip sample was added to rtts. See rtts for a description of how these two fields can be used together to calculate the average round-trip over a given period.
rtts
The sum of all round-trip samples taken over the lifetime of the connection in microseconds. Each time TCP updates the value of rtt with a new sample, that sample's value is added to rtts. To calculate the average round-trip over a given period (e.g. between T1 and T2), take samples of rtts and rttc at T1 and T2, and calculate
(( rtts_T2 - rtts_T1 ) / ( rttc_T2 - rttc_T1 )).
See Example 4 for an example of how this can be done programmatically from a shell script.
rwnd
The size of the local TCP receive window at this instant.
state
The TCP connection state. Possible values are:
BOUND
Bound, ready to connect or listen.
CLOSED
Closed. The local endpoint (e.g. socket) is not being used.
CLOSING
Closed, but still waiting for a termination acknowledgment from the peer.
CLOSE_WAIT
The peer has shutdown; waiting for the local endpoint to close.
ESTABLISHED
Connection has been established and data can be transferred.
FIN_WAIT_1
Local endpoint is closed, but waiting for termination acknowledgment from the peer.
FIN_WAIT_2
Local endpoint is closed, but waiting for a termination request from the peer.
IDLE
The local endpoint (e.g. socket) has been opened, but is not bound.
LAST_ACK
The remote endpoint has terminated, and the local endpoint has sent a termination request. The acknowledgment for this request has not been received.
LISTEN
Listening for incoming connections.
SYN_RECEIVED
Initial connection request has been received and acknowledged, and a connection request has been sent but not yet acknowledged.
SYN_SENT
A connection establishment request has been sent but not yet acknowledged.
TIME_WAIT
Waiting for time to pass after having sent an acknowledgment for the peer's connection termination request.

See RFC 793 for a more complete understanding of the TCP protocol and TCP connection states.

suna
The number of unacknowledged bytes outstanding at this instant.
swnd
The size of the local TCP send window (the peer's receive window) at this instant.
unsent
The number of unsent bytes in the local TCP transmit queue at this instant.

The connstat utility exits 0 on success, or 1 if an error occurs.

Example 1 List established connections.
By default, connstat lists basic connection details. Using the -e option allows the user to get a quick glance of established connections.
$ connstat -e
          LADDR  LPORT           RADDR  RPORT        STATE
   10.43.37.172  51275    172.16.105.4    389  ESTABLISHED
   10.43.37.172     22    172.16.98.16  62270  ESTABLISHED
   10.43.37.172   1020  172.16.100.162   2049  ESTABLISHED
   10.43.37.172   1019     10.43.11.64   2049  ESTABLISHED
   10.43.37.172     22    172.16.98.16  61520  ESTABLISHED
   10.43.37.172     80    10.43.16.132  59467  ESTABLISHED
    
Example 2 Show one connection's I/O stats every second
The -F option is used to filter a specific connection, -o is used to output specific fields, and -i to provide the output interval in seconds.
$ connstat -F lport=22,rport=49675,raddr=172.16.168.30 \
  -o inbytes,outbytes -i 1
    INBYTES    OUTBYTES
       9589       18101
    INBYTES    OUTBYTES
       9589       18341
    INBYTES    OUTBYTES
       9589       18501
    INBYTES    OUTBYTES
       9589       18661
    ...
    
Example 3 Understanding the bottleneck for a given connection
Understanding the transmit bottleneck for a connection requires knowing the size of the congestion window, whether the window is full, and the round-trip time to the peer. The congestion window is full when suna is equal to cwnd. If the window is full, then the throughput is limited by the size of the window and the round-trip time. In that case, knowing these two values is critical. Either the window is small because of retransmissions, or the round-trip latency is high, or both. In the example below, the window is small due to high congestion or an unreliable network.
$ connstat -F lport=41934,rport=50001 \
  -o outbytes,suna,cwnd,unsent,retransbytes,rtt -T d -i 1
July  7, 2016 11:04:40 AM EDT
   OUTBYTES        SUNA        CWND      UNSENT  RETRANSBYTES      RTT
 1647048093       47784       47784     3017352       3701844      495
July  7, 2016 11:04:41 AM EDT
   OUTBYTES        SUNA        CWND      UNSENT  RETRANSBYTES      RTT
 1660720109       41992       41992     1535032       3765556      673
July  7, 2016 11:04:42 AM EDT
   OUTBYTES        SUNA        CWND      UNSENT  RETRANSBYTES      RTT
 1661875613       26064       26064     4311688       3829268      571
July  7, 2016 11:04:43 AM EDT
   OUTBYTES        SUNA        CWND      UNSENT  RETRANSBYTES      RTT
 1681478637       41992       41992      437304       3932076     1471
July  7, 2016 11:04:44 AM EDT
   OUTBYTES        SUNA        CWND      UNSENT  RETRANSBYTES      RTT
 1692028765       44888       44888     1945800       4014612      921
...
    
Example 4 Calculating average RTT over intervals
As described in the Fields section, the rtts and rttc fields can be used to calculate average RTT over a period of time. The following example combines machine parsable output with these fields to do this programmatically. The script:
#!/bin/bash

i=0
connstat -P -F lport=41934,rport=50001 -o rttc,rtts -i 1 | \
    while IFS=, read rttc[$i] rtts[$i]; do
        if [[ $i != 0 ]]; then
                let rtt="(${rtts[$i]} - ${rtts[$i - 1]}) / \
                    (${rttc[$i]} - ${rttc[$i - 1]})"
                print "avg rtt = ${rtt}us"
        fi
        ((i++))
done
    

The output:

...
avg rtt = 992us
avg rtt = 829us
avg rtt = 712us
avg rtt = 869us
...
    
Example 5 Show HTTP server connections in TIME_WAIT state
Connections accumulating in TIME_WAIT state can sometimes be an issue, as these connections linger and take up port number space while their time wait timer is ticking.
$ connstat -F state=time_wait,lport=80
          LADDR  LPORT           RADDR  RPORT        STATE
   10.43.37.172     80   172.16.168.30  56067    TIME_WAIT
   10.43.37.172     80   172.16.168.30  56068    TIME_WAIT
   10.43.37.172     80   172.16.168.30  56070    TIME_WAIT
    

The command line options for this command are stable, but the output format when not using the -P option and diagnostic messages are not.

netstat(1M)

J. Postel, Transmission Control Protocol, STD 7, RFC 793, September 1981.

V. Paxson, M. Allman, J. Chu, and M. Sargent, Computing TCP's Retransmission Timer, RFC 6298, June 2011.

July 5, 2016 OmniOS