newform - change the format of a text file
newform [-s] [-itabspec] [-otabspec] [-bn] [-en] [-pn]
[-an] [-f] [-cchar] [-ln] [filename]...
newform reads lines from the named filenames, or the
standard input if no input file is named, and reproduces the lines on the
standard output. Lines are reformatted in accordance with command line
options in effect.
Except for -s, command line options may appear in any
order, may be repeated, and may be intermingled with the optional
filenames. Command line options are processed in the order specified.
This means that option sequences like ``-e15 -l60'' will yield
results different from ``-l60 -e15''. Options are applied to
all filenames on the command line.
The following options are supported:
Shears off leading characters on each line up to the
first tab and places up to 8 of the sheared characters at the end of the line.
If more than 8 characters (not counting the first tab) are sheared, the eighth
character is replaced by a *
and any characters to the right of it are
discarded. The first tab is always discarded.
An error message and program exit will occur if this option is
used on a file without a tab on each line. The characters sheared off are
saved internally until all other options specified are applied to that line.
The characters are then added at the end of the processed line.
For example, to convert a file with leading digits, one or more
tabs, and text on each line, to a file beginning with the text, all tabs
after the first expanded to spaces, padded with spaces out to column 72 (or
truncated to column 72), and the leading digits placed starting at column
73, the command would be:
newform -s -i -l
-a -e filename
Input tab specification: expands tabs to spaces,
according to the tab specifications given. Tabspec
recognizes all tab
specification forms described in tabs(1)
. In addition, tabspec
may be -
, in which newform
assumes that the tab specification is
to be found in the first line read from the standard input (see
). If no tabspec
is given, tabspec
. A tabspec
expects no tabs; if any
are found, they are treated as −1
Output tab specification: replaces spaces by tabs,
according to the tab specifications given. The tab specifications are the same
as for -itabspec. If no tabspec is given, tabspec
defaults to −8. A tabspec of −0 means that
no spaces will be converted to tabs on output.
characters from the beginning of the
line when the line length is greater than the effective line length (see
). Default is to truncate the number of characters
necessary to obtain the effective line length. The default value is used when
with no n
is used. This option can be used to delete the
sequence numbers from a COBOL
program as follows:
newform -l1 -b7
Same as -bn except that characters are
truncated from the end of the line.
Prefix n characters (see -cchar) to
the beginning of a line when the line length is less than the effective line
length. Default is to prefix the number of characters necessary to obtain the
effective line length.
Same as -pn except characters are appended
to the end of a line.
Write the tab specification format line on the standard
output before any other lines are output. The tab specification format line
which is printed will correspond to the format specified in the last
-o option. If no -o option is specified, the line which is
printed will contain the default specification of −8.
Change the prefix/append character to char.
Default character for char is a space.
Set the effective line length to n
is not entered, -l
defaults to 72. The default line length
without the -l
option is 80 characters. Note: Tabs and backspaces are
considered to be one character (use -i
to expand tabs to spaces).
The −l1 must be used to set the effective line
length shorter than any existing line in the file so that the -b
option is activated.
The following operand is supported:
The following exit values are returned:
All diagnostics are fatal.
newform was called with a bad option.
"not -s format"
There was no tab on one line.
"can't open file"
"internal line too long"
A line exceeds 512 characters after being expanded in the
internal work buffer.
"tabspec in error"
A tab specification is incorrectly formatted, or
specified tab stops are not ascending.
"tabspec indirection illegal"
A tabspec read from a file (or standard input) may
not contain a tabspec referencing another file (or standard
newform normally only keeps track of physical characters;
however, for the -i and -o options, newform will keep
track of backspaces in order to line up tabs in the appropriate logical
newform will not prompt the user if a tabspec is to
be read from the standard input (by use of -i- or
If the -f option is used, and the last -o option
specified was -o-, and was preceded by either a
-o- or a -i-, the tab
specification format line will be incorrect.